Vector graphics make use of elements like, lines, curves, points, rectangles, polygons, circles, and arcs etc to create graphics using calculations from mathematical formulas. For example, the vector graphic of a tree will form an outline of a frame using a line segment, as far as the color of the tree is concerned, it will be determined by the color of the frame.
Vector graphics rely heavily on geometric characteristics, and can only be generated through softwares. One benefit of using vector graphics is that these types of images occupy less space, as these files contain individual images that can be easily combined with other images as well.
When used for printing purposes, vector graphics can offer quite great results by printing sharp images even if they have been resized. For instance, even if you enlarge your vector logo size from small to big, the quality will not suffer and you will get great results in both the cases. As vector graphics is scalable, it can be converted to raster, but the other way round is not possible. As vector graphic includes artworks with AI, SVG, DRW, CGM, EPS and XML format, whereas raster includes artworks with BMP, JPG, GIF and PNG format.